peru: links to the history of peru before 1900   

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  People Together Will Never be Defeated. Mangas, Peru, 1984. Jorge Duestua    casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!

  on this page
Browse down the page or just click one of these sections....
1. General
2. Colonial Peru: Conquest
3. Colonial Peru: Society
4. Independence & 19th century
Wars of Independence
5. Territorial Wars, 1814 -1884
Bolivia, Ecuador, Spain
The Pacific War 1879-1884
Great Britain
  20th Century Peru
(separate page)


  other related casahistoria sites
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· Peru · Uruguay ·



casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:



Useful English language sites on the history of Peru are limited. These links indicate some of the more valuable. I would be grateful for suggestions of others to include, in Spanish, as well as English.

1. Generalgo to top of page


For extensive links to the history of Peru in the 20th century go to the casahistoria Peru 2 site 
  casahistoria: Latin America visit the casahistoria general Latin American page for many more background sites.

  • Indian Couple Carrying their Goods to the Market at Chinchero, Cuzco, 1986. Billy HareSimply - Peru, a history. Tongue in cheek "dummy's" guide to history of Peru (after a theme by the sixteenth century Inca-Spaniard Puma de Ayala) from the new internationalist. Published 1989 but still amusing - and a worthwhile place to start!
  • Timeline and Profile of Peru. Both clearly presented by the BBC.
  • The Peruvians - An exhibition of photographs by Peruvian Photographers Click on any of the thumbnail images on this page to see the photos in a humanities exhibition featuring the work of 17 Peruvian photographers was curated by Fernando Castro, organized by William P. Wright, and made available by the Texas Humanities Resource Center  §
  • Fototeca Andina 20,000 images of Peru from the archives of the Cabrera brothers, Miguel Chani, José Gabriel González, César Meza Salazar and Fidel Mora
  • Archivo Fotografico Courret Searchable archive of Eugenio Courret's photographs of Peru taken between 1863-1935. Unfortunately, now transformed into a confusing Facebook page. However an overview of the collection is available here.

For current developments to the national history themes:

Detail from "Two Shamans" Laguna De Chimbe, Huancabamba, Peru, 1988 Billy Hare  
All the site images are from the excellent "The Peruvians"  site.
Presented by Texas Council for the Humanities Resource Centre.

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2. Colonial Peru: Conquest  go to top of page
  • History of the Conquest of Peru by William Hickling Prescott A Gutenberg Project e-book. You can read the text following the links in this page, or you can also download it in zip format (compressed). The book is based mostly from documents the author collected in Spain. Most of them comes from the Royal Academy of History at Madrid. The richest portion of this collection are papers furnished by Munoz, an eminent scholar employed by nearly fifty years amassing materials for the history of the Spanish discovery and conquest of America.
  • Versión Peruana de la Conquista The Peruvian Version of the Conquest.  With a personal, patriotic conviction, Edmundo Guillén Guillén rebuilds the final chapters of the history of the Tawantisuyo (Incan Empire) using authentic historical documents from the XVI and XVII centuries. The site talks about a heroic resistance against the Spanish conquistadors. It emphasizes the failed Reconquest War directed under the leadership of Manco Capac, the Resistance of Vilcabamba, and the holocaust of Tupac Amaru. Bibliography, documents, maps and images.
  • Tupac Amaru The Life, Times, and Execution of the Last Inca. Well presented and detailed, with good bibliography of sources. 1998 by James Q. Jacobs.
  • The "Canazo" Sugar Cane Rum Mangas, Peru. Jorge Duestua Dead Bones Dancing: The Taki Onqoy, Archaism, and Crisis In Sixteenth Century Peru by Sändra Lee Allen Henson. Hefty (101 pages) thesis looking at aspects of the native reaction to the conquest.
  • Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Bio from mundoandino Born of Spanish aristocratic and royal Inca roots, he was the son of a Spanish conquistador and Inca princess, granddaughter (nof the powerful Inca Huayna Capac. Click here for a comprehensive of links in Spanish to Inca Garcilaso de la Vega  
  • The Imperial city of Cuzco by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Translated by Dr. Dick Gerdes. Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Excerpt describes the Incas’ imperial city of Cuzco §
  • A New Chronicle Nueva corónica y buen gobierno Several decades after the fall of the Inca empire, a native Andean from the area of Huamanga in the southern Peruvian Andes wrote to king Philip III of Spain. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala's aim was to seek the reform of Spanish colonial governance in order to save the Andean peoples from the destructive forces of colonial exploitation, disease, and miscegenation. Finding his most persuasive medium to be the visual image, he composed 398 full-page drawings which are an integral part of his 1200-page Nueva corónica y buen gobierno. This is a facsimile of the copy that ended up in the Royal Danish library!

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3. Colonial Society  go to top of page
  • Santa Catalina Convent, Arequipa Established in the 16th century, Santa Catalina convent is perhaps the largest such institution in the world. It was a haven for daughters of the local elite, who lived a pampered if isolated life. (Beautiful) images of the convent). Illustrated with contemporary pictures, modern images and data.  By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file

The Colonial Missions Go to the casahistoria site for extensive links to the Missions of the Spanish Pacific territories

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4. Independence: Politics & Economics in the 19th century  go to top of page
Independence Wars Political overview & narrative Revolts Economics
  • Andean Portrait of Four Siblings , Robert Fantozzi The Guano Age in Peru Good 1980 free access article from History Today by John Peter Olinger
  • The Guano Era, 1845-70 from Peru Country Study: US Library of Congress.
  • Guano Trade - TED American University The Trade & Environment Database (TED) of American University is a collection of econo-social case studies. This case analyses the history and impact of guano mining and commerce in the 19th and early 20th century. Guano is a natural fertilizer made from bird droppings. Peru's primary guano islands are the Chinchas, the Ballestras, the Lobos, and the Macabi and Guanape islands.
  • Peru's Guano trade. New York Times photo gallery of the industry today - little changed since its 19th century heyday. Fascinating!
  • When guano imperialists ruled the earth Andrew Leonard provides a clear history of the rise and fall of the Peruvian gauno industry and its links with the worlds industrial powers. 2008 Salon article.
  • Economic Ideas in Peru's "Fictitious Prosperity" of Guano, 1840-1880 Full online book from Univ of Calif by Paul Gootenberg. All you ever wanted to know about guano and its impact on Peru's 19th century industrial development
  • Mining in 19th Century Peru: The Paupers Seat Review article provides a useful insight into the key issues of the topic (of Jose R. Deustua's The Bewitchment of Silver: The Social Economy of Mining in Nineteenth-Century Peru by Alfonso W. Quiroz, City Univ of New York.).



5. Territorial Wars,1814-1889
go to top of page

Early Conflict with Bolivia with Ecuador: with Spain:


The Pacific War, 1879-1884 


And with Great Britain:


  • Against the British Squad: The Pacocha Incident Patience needed - sub pages can be slow to load! During the 1877 Peruvian revolution headed by Nicolas de Pierola, a British-made ironclad named Huascar was seized from the Peruvian Navy. Soon the ironclad embarked on sabotage actions against the Government forces. It also intercepted British merchant ships along the coast of Peru for inspection. The British were outraged, and sent Rear Admiral de Horsey, the highest-ranking navy officer in the Pacific region. After 21 hours of combat the British officers aborted their mission. The Pacocha Incident was considered as a humiliating action for the Royal Navy and from then on the British Squadron in South America would always be composed of ironclads--the same type of ship as the Huascar.
  • The Huáscar ~ the museum ship. Illustrated article with links to the wars with Peru in which it was also involved.  From the Pre-Dreadnought Preservation site. (Oct 2008: Presently unavailable - hopefully it will reappear!)

For extensive links to the history of Peru in the 20th century go to the casahistoria Peru 2 site 
  casahistoria: Latin America visit the casahistoria general Latin American page for many more background sites.



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