links to the 19th & 20th century global emigration out of Europe  

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  Detail from Immigrant children, Ellis Island, New York. By Brown Brothers, ca. 1908 Records of the Public Health Service. Click to access full  image. remembering

  on this page
Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
1. General
2. Reasons for emigration
3. Process:
departure & crossing | ports of departure | the voyage | arrival | assimilation
4. The Emigrants (link to new separate site)

Gt Britain & Ireland | Northern Europe | Western Europe | Eastern Europe & Jewish Diaspora | Southern Europe

5. Documents
6. Research your family emigrant origins
Other core casahistoria emigration pages:
The Emigrant Homelands
Case Study 1: USA & Canada
Case Study 2: Argentina  
Case Study 3: Australia

Related casahistoria sites
  Imperialism home · 



casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:




1. General

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To place these links in a global context at the time go to the casahistoria Imperialism site.


Genealogy has led to an explosion in sites as immigrant descendants - especially ex European - seek to discover their roots. The purpose of this site is not to be a guide to genealogical research, but to link to sites that help explain the process and significance of European immigration in the industrial period in its broad historical context.






2. Reasons for emigration

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  For this and the other sections below, please also refer to the individual casahistoria core emigration sites for further links:
To the USA & Canada
To Argentina
To Australia


  • Stalkers Guide to Migration Basic, but clear brief ections on the economics of emigration.
  • Emigration From Ireland - Vice Or Virtue? looks at the economic significance of emigration (an economics essay...) by Patricia Broderick by Junior Sophister
  • Why emigrate? Uses emigrants from eastern Europe as the example to highlight some of the key reasons why in a brief way. Source: Auswanderungen aus Baden und dem Breisgau. By Werner Hacker.
  • The Economics of Mass Migrations - a useful research primer by Jeffrey G. Williamson, NBER Research Associate in the Program on Development of the American Economy and is the Laird Bell Professor of Economics at Harvard. His "Profile" appears later in this issue. The mass migrations that ended early in this century raise four fundamental questions: What explains them? How did they affect labour markets? Did their impact create a policy backlash? Does the experience offer lessons for today?
  • Mass Migrations in the Poor Periphery looks at the economic consequences of 19th century migration. You may need an economics qualification to follow some of the equations... by J Williams, Harvard.
Persecution Synthesis: Push/Pull factors






3. Process: departure & crossing 

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  • The Emigrants handbook What  you would have needed to know if you were considering emigrating one hundred years ago. Read ‘The Emigrants Handbook published in 1864, for prospective emigrants to Canada.
  • Family Colonization Loan Society Emigration Scheme - 1851. The interesting and novel site exhibits an example of an emigration scheme, was taken from the Belfast Gazette,1851. It is an example of one of the many schemes that were made available to encourage emigration - in this case to the fledgling colony of Port Phillip, Australia
Ports of Departure
  • Ports of Departure a list of links to European emigrant ports, shipping lists. From the researcher site, Cyndi's List. Very comprehensive with links to other aspects of the (US) immigrant story.
  • Purfürst Migration Patterns A family history but useful as it looks at the different routes open to US bound emigrants from central & eastern Europe and describes entire journeys.
  • Germany Emigration and Immigration Very useful (free) research page from FamilySearch. apart from indicating where to look for records it also gives an excellent description/history of emigration through the main German ports.
  • Bremerhaven A very useful site from the German Emigrant Centre. Useful statistics, illustrations, concise account of the uses and difficulties of using the remaining evidence.
  • Die MAUS - Family History and Genealogical Society of Bremen Passenger Lists and much more in a searchable database of emigrants & ships who passed through Bremen.  Includes  a listing by village of origin.
      Great Britain:
  • Migration from Northern Europe to America via the Port of Hull, 1848-1914 Article describing how the north of England port played a key role in Scandinavian emigration. By Nicholas J. Evans
  • Transmigration via British Ports  Page about the many emigrants that did not depart directly from their homelands to the Americas or Australasia. Instead, they would first take a smaller steamer, referred to as a "Feeder ship" to a British port, then by train to larger emigration ports such as Liverpool, Glasgow or London, to embark on a transatlantic steamship.
  The Voyage Arrival



Use these casahistoria sites to find out more about emigration to these countries:

Emigration to the USA & Canada
  Emigration to Argentina
  Emigration to Australia



4. The Emigrants
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The Emigrants Go to this casahistoria site for links to the specific history of emigration from each of the following areas in Europe:

  • Gt Britain & Ireland
  • Northern Europe
  • Western Europe
  • Eastern Europe & Jewish Diaspora
  • Southern Europe








5. Documents

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General Ships and Journeys
  • Disease and Immigration Concise outline of illness during the voyage and documents from Spartacus Educational
  • Heritage Ships. actually a site selling images of emigrant ships but useful if you are looking for a particular one or want to see what they looked like. Massive range no need to buy.
  • Section of the emigrant ship 'Bourneuf' Section of the emigrant ship 'Bourneuf' showing the arrangement of passengers to Australia.
Witness accounts
  • Immigration to the United States UK Spartacus site. Numerous, well set out witness accounts of European immigration to the north from the UK spartacus site. accounts well placed in context.
  • Letters from an Immigrant - Bertha Starke Geerdts came to Milwaukee from Germany 100 years ago. Although she was happy in her new land, she never forgot her ties to her family, and she wrote letters faithfully. This collection of her correspondence in both German and English covers a span of time from 1890 through 1911 and offers striking glimpses into the ties that bind. The site also provides links to her family.
  • The New Americans: Immigration, America's Story - New Immigrants' personal stories rom the PBS site
  • Tracing Mormon Pioneers-Emigration Resources by Region/Country The Mormon Church of Latter Day Saints puts much time into researching family background. Their resources for the period of European immigration are invaluable.
  • Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley: Facsimile of the 1855 published book, illustrated with steel engravings and wood cuts from sketches made by Frederick Piercy. Route from Liverpool ranks as the most beautiful book published by Latter Day Saints. Many of its steel engravings still have high artistic merit. Although it is now a rare book, its illustrations still find their way into many books written on Mormon history. Opens as pdf




6. Research your family emigrant origins 

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  • Immigrant Ancestors Project Sponsored by the Center for Family History and Genealogy at Brigham Young University, uses emigration registers to locate information about the birthplaces of immigrants in their native countries, which is not found in the port registers and naturalization documents in the destination countries. Excellent free resource.
  • Family Search Use this site to locate records that may contain information about your ancestors. It can also help you find a family history center near you. 
  • and Family History Records The site claims to be the largest collection of family history records on the Web. Explore your family tree!  Now has a vast amount of (subscription only - but you can usually get a 14 day free trial) emigration related sections.
  • Ancestors in America This site can help visitors extend and enrich their perception of the experiences of Asian immigrants to the United States. Areas of particular interest include Ancestors , which contains video clips from the series; Documents, which contains digital versions of important documents throughout our history that impacted directly on immigrants trying to establish themselves in this country; Tell Us Your Stories, a section that encourages visitors to tell their stories; and Discover Your Ancestors, resources for conducting genealogy work.
  • Discover Your Ancestors: Asian American genealogy resources - A very informative page that provides resources for conducting genealogy work.

Tracing Family links with British India
  • India Office Records: Family History Sources British Library guide for family historians on how to use the available sources working from a variety of starting points such as occupational descriptions or types of documents (wills, pensions or ecclesiastical records for example).
  • India Genealogy Links Excellent and very thorough site for those seeking to research settlement in India
  • Family Histories - Family History in India Cathy Day's excellent Resource. Essentially information regarding British, European and Anglo-Indian family history in India, Burma, Pakistan and Bangladesh. However very good for research into specifics such as occupations, army regiments, life in general    §
  • Families in British India Society Organization devoted to members with an interest in researching their ancestors of British and European origin in India and Southern Asia.


the core casahistoria european emigration sites:

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European Emigration Home Page

The Emigrants: specific history of emigration from:

Gt Britain & Ireland | Northern Europe | Western Europe | Eastern Europe & Jewish Diaspora | Southern Europe

Case Study 1: USA & Canada
Case Study 2: Argentina
Case Study 3: Australia



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