lenin's russia: links to the post revolutionary russia of lenin   

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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
1. Lenin: Biographies
2. Lenin: Ideas
Ideas | General Sites
3. Trotsky 
Biographies | Ideas
4. Domestic Policy, 1917-24
Politics | Opposition & Terror | Kronstadt
5. Civil War & Intervention
War Communism | New Economic Policy
7. Foreign Policy
Witness Accounts & Evaluations
Death of Lenin
Historical Analysis
General sites
Documents | Visual
Other core casahistoria Russia/USSR pages:

Background to Revolution
1917 Revolutions
Stalin's Russia 1927-39
Stalin: Economics & Terror, 1927-41

  Related casahistoria sites
Single Party States · Ideologies of left & right ·



casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:




1. Lenin: Biographies
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1917 Click to go to the extensive links on this casahistoria page for the events that brought Lenin & the Bolsheviks to power.

The web has numerous sites to Lenin and Trotsky, however most are either over sycophantic or of limited academic interest.  Those offered below are of greater value. What is missing are sites with critical analysis.


Biographies Lenin's women






2. Lenin: Ideas
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See also The political ideologies of  Revolution on the 1917 casahistoria page
General Lenin sites
  • Lenin Internet Archive  Stylish with bios, documents and photos. A Useful section is that of Biographical Portraits written by Lenin contemporaries. One of the few Lenin sites being regularly maintained now.
  • Lenin Social Nerve: Unfortunately this is no longer maintained. The link here is to the excellent Wayback Machine copy. Unfortunately this is missing many images and aspects from the site. it is still worth using.   § As I wrote originally: The site modestly claims: "contains the most information offered on-line about the life and work of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. The site includes over 500 photographs of Lenin, the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917.  The site includes photographs and biographies of the prominent revolutionaries of the time, like Leon Trotsky.  The Biographical section on Lenin contains information gathered to suite the intellectual mind on the controversies and legends of Lenin." The site is very good though... The pick of the general Lenin sites. in case it returns. here is the original site URL:  www.socialnerve.org/lenin/index.html 


3. Trotsky

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  • Leon Trotsky Brief bio from BBC
  • Leon Trotsky Bio from the Russian international TV news channel RT Russia of one of the leaders of Russia’s October Revolution in 1917 and later the founder and commander of the Red Army.
  • Leon Trotsky  Simple, but well illustrated biography
  • My Life By the man himself. Originally published in 1930 by Charles Schribner’s Sons, NY. This is the full version online
  • Trotsky Internet Archive Photo Gallery Extensive.
  • Many sites now on Frida Kahlo as well as Lenin, Trotsky. Most of dubious value too... Here are a better pair:
    • Museo Frida Kahlo - Google Art Project Yet another Google idea? Nonetheless this is an excellent resource. It appears to bring all the Kahlo items - paintings, photos, artefacts, available online into an easily viewed "gallery"....
    • Frida Kahlo: Good variety of items from US PBS site. Excellent page of links to further sites.
Ideas and writings General sites


4. Domestic Policy, 1917-24 

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For links to the deaths of the Romanovs, click on the 1917 casahistoria page
Politics Opposition To Lenin & Terror Kronstadt



5. The Civil War and Intervention

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  • Civil War: Whites v Reds and Allied intervention two introductory pages from BBC history.
  • The Russian Civil War This two-page account of the Russian Civil War concentrates on broad trends rather than specific events. Examining the strengths and weaknesses of both main sides, and including information on regional differences and international involvement, this would be an ideal accompaniment to a timeline or narrative. Oddly, it neglects to mention the importance of the railways to the Red Army.
  • Russian Civil War , White Army   &  Red Army Thorough accounts and documents from the Spartacus site.
  • The Civil War Competent account of war and outcome. Prof Rempel lecture based on Donald W. Treadgold, Twentieth Century Russia, (Westview Press, 1987).
  • Lenin and the First Communist Revolutions, Civil War section From the Museum of Communism. Detailed, with maps.
  • Lev Trotsky and the Red Army in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1921 Student thesis by John M. Kelsey, Claremont McKenna College
  • Red Army Sound initial outline of the origins of the Red Army from Firstworldwar.com
  • Anton Denikin Bio from the Russian international TV news channel RT Russia of one of the most successful leaders of the White movement. A Russian general, he nearly succeeded in defeating the Bolshevik forces in 1919 during the Civil War.
  • Aleksandr Kolchak Bio from the Russian international TV news channel RT Russia of the Russian naval commander, polar explorer and a leader of the anti-Bolshevik fight during the Russian Civil War
  • White Falcons: the White Air Forces 1918-1920 Interesting, if slightly offbeat article on the airforces (especially Finnish)
  • White Songs and Poetry The following are several examples from soldiers' songs and poetry from the Russian Civil War. While some of the authors are known, the names of many have been lost or never recorded. This small sample is drawn from research into the White movement in South Russia, in particular General Wrangel and his Crimean government, and it is composed of examples found in the memoir literature of White emigres. But the purple background is .....too purple.....  §
  • Russian anarchists and the civil war by Paul Avrich. Interesting article looking at how The Bolsheviks attempted to enlist anarchist support. From Russian Review, 1968
Allied Intervention 



6. Economics 

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War Communism  New Economic Policy


7. Foreign Policy

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   The Allied Intervention See Section 5 above


8. Witness Accounts and Evaluations

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The following are complete books. All are by writers sympathetic at the time to the general need for change, although it is clear from several that their ideas were changing in the years following the revolution. 
  • A Great Beginning, Vladimir Lenin June 19, 1919: In this account Lenin describes the tasks being made throughout the country to rebuild itself during the wrenching famine and Civil War. Lenin describes the "Communist Subbotniks" who are rebuilding the nation in peace, while he also describes the heroic efforts of the workers in the rear, those workers and peasants living under the domination of the white armies.
  • Russia in 1919 by Arthur Ransome online editions of the books written by "Swallows and Amazons" author who befriended Lenin, Trotsky and other revolutionary leaders. This book describes the economic, social and political situation he saw during his visit to Russia in February and March of 1919. In this work Ransome interviews several prominent members of the Soviet government as well as ordinary citizens of Soviet Russia. While support of the Soviet society is evident in this critical but encouraging look at this new government struggling through a civil war, what is not evident is that Arthur Ransome was a British Secret agent working with MI6. (But was Ransome also a spy? See here for the latest archive info: Still an enigma ...)
  • The Crisis in Russia a second book by Ransome, written Summer of 1920
  • How the Soviets Work, H. N. Brailsford 1920,1927: A critical description of the positives and negatives of the grass-roots councils empowered by the revolution. Much of this material is drawn from 1920 and qualified by his visit in 1927.
  • My Disillusionment in Russia, Emma Goldman 1921-22: American anarchist Emma Goldman travels to Russia for the first time in 30 years. She provides a revealing picture on the rampant opportunism throughout the Soviet government and its steady roots throughout the bureaucracy. Goldman explains life in Soviet Russia from the viewpoint of Russian anarchists who wanted to abolish all government right away, and she charts the undemocratic injustices that occur to them as a result.
  • The First Time in History, Anna Louise Strong, August 1921 to December, 1923
  • Children of Revolution, Anna Louise Strong 1925: Story of the John Reed Children's Colony on the Volga, which is as well a story of the whole great structure of Russia
  • Left Behind - Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden's memoirs of life at Imperial court and her harrowing escape through Siberia during the Revolution and Russian Civil War. From Alexandra Palace
  • And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918-1930 Warfare, epidemics, and famine left millions of Soviet children homeless during the 1920s. Many became beggars, prostitutes, and thieves, and were denizens of both secluded underworld haunts and bustling train stations. Alan Ball's study of these abandoned children examines their lives and the strategies the government used to remove them from the streets lest they threaten plans to mold a new socialist generation. The "rehabilitation" of these youths and the results years later are an important lesson in Soviet history. 



9. Death of Lenin

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  For the succession & rise of Stalin see Stalin: Background & rise to power in the casahistoria Stalin's Russia page.

And finally, something different..... 


10. Historical Analysis

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  • The Legacies of Revolution Richard Pipes presents an indictment of the Russian Revolution, its violence, consequences, and the relationship of Leninism to Stalinism.  §
  • The End of the Revolution? Sheila Fitzpatrick, one of the most prominent historians of the USSR, discusses in this passage from her history of the revolution the difficulties in studying 1917 and in determining when the Russian Revolution ended. Her periodization has become the most influential way of viewing the Russian Revolution as a twenty-year process.  §
  • Censored by His Own Regime 1996 review article by by Orlando Figes which discusses the view emerging of Lenin with the opening of the Russian secret archives. Casts useful light on the character of Lenin
  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - David Remnick's commentary on the life and legacy of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.
  • Balance Sheet of October - Trotskyist overview of the Bolshevik rise to power and the Lenin state by Ted Grant


11. General link sites to the period 

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  • The Russian Revolution This is a very good place to start. It has many links to sites on the background and events of the Revolution. A useful collection of annotated links to other sites relating to the Russian Revolution. It is very suitable for IB Level
  • Revolution of 1917  Presentation by Professor Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College.
  • Russian Studies on the Internet   A very thorough, and quite academic listing of sites relevant to Russian History. For serious casahistorians in particular, but difficult to navigate.
  • Chronology of Russian History: Soviet Period A well presented university site, looking at the grand sweep of Russian/Soviet history from a chronological position. Good linked access to documents. §
  • ‘Revolutionary Silhouettes’ Written by Anatoly Vasilievich Lunacharsky in 1923, the ‘Revolutionary Silhouettes’ are a series of accounts dealing with leading figures of the revolution, including Lenin and Trotsky. Lunacharsky, who was a member of the USSR’s first government, knew these people personally, and each silhouette is a mixture of biography, reminiscence and examination.
  Who is who? Brief biographies of key figures during the Revolutionary period 
  Glossary: Explanation of the main events, words, places connected with Russia, 1917-41 

Links to written documentary evidence: 
  • History of the Soviet Union This website of translated documents by the Univ of East Anglia is designed to give students easy access to a wide selection of sources on Russian history translated into English and available electronically.  §
  • Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Russian Revolution Key Documents on the revolutionary period
  • PLP translations an enormous number of books/documents translated by Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds. This links to the enormous index. Good for browsing for sample documents - but you need a general idea of what/who you are looking for as the index is author based, not thematic.  §


  For extensive links to Stalin's Russia go to the casahistoria Stalin 1927-39 site 
  For extensive links to the events of 1917 go to the casahistoria 1917 site  




the casahistoria Russia/USSR core sites:
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  Background to Revolution
1917 Revolutions
  Lenin´s Russia  
  Stalin's Russia 1927-39
  Stalin: Economics & Terror, 1927-41  



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