vietnam war, part two: this page has links to the us withdrawal & vietnamese victory   

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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
1. Introduction
Protest & Opposition
3. US Withdrawal
Vietnamization | Peace | Fall of Saigon |
MiA & war dead | Some analysis
4. Contagion: Laos & Cambodia
5. Photo journalism, Film, Literature & TV
6. General Sites
Other core casahistoria Vietnam pages:
  Vietnam War, Part One:
        Background to the US involvement
Geneva 1954 & aftermath | Diem
Kennedy and Vietnam | LBJ & Tonkin
       The War against the US: Events & campaigns
Chronologies | Campaigns
The Ho Chi Minh Trail | My Lai
       Allies of the USA
       Weapons | Women at War |
       Veteran & witness accounts
       North Vietnamese & Viet Cong
              The Vietnamese viewpoint
  Indo China & the French
Other core casahistoria Cold War pages:

  Origins of the Cold War
  Divided Germany, 1945-49
  Korean War
  Thaw to Cuban Missile Crisis
  Space Race
  Prague'68, Ostpolitik, Detente & China

  The End of the Cold War
  Related casahistoria sites
Imperialism · Decolonisation · China & the West ·
Iraq & West



casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:




1. Introduction   
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See these casahistoria sites for further background:
Vietnam War, Part One: US Involvement and campaigns
Indochina: the French experience in Indochina



In recent years, there has been an enormous growth in US sites dedicated to the Vietnam conflict. Most are linked to military aspects of the war, however many examine the documentary background to events. There are a number reasons for this: the recent Iraq conflict & occupation (see casahistoria Iraq & the West site for links), and a greater US military self confidence, release of official archive material,  less inhibitions by veterans to write about their war and not least the opening up of Vietnam itself to tourism. Welcome as this is, it has served to overwhelm users of the web and cloud key issues. The aim of this page is to focus on those sites of most interest and value to the student of the period and to place them within a (hopefully) clear structure. In addition gamer sites are proliferating - not all are as academically valuable as the French Indochine site.
  • Vietnamese History 'How and When the the Resistance movement began' A clear outline history and introduction to the conflicts historical context, from the US 'Vets with a Mission' site. Worth a look for its detail from 19th century onwards. 
  • Vietnam  Not a history site, but one that gives you a tourist insight into a country opening more and more to tourism. This includes sections on: 'The History of Vietnam', 'Location, Geography and Climate', 'Vietnamese Culture' and 'Vietnamese People'. A full account of current Vietnam can be found at the CIA World Factbook site.
  • Vietnam: A Television History PBS Transcripts from the US TV series  is a 13-part documentary film series produced for public television by WGBH Boston, in cooperation with Central Independent Television/United Kingdom, and Antenne-2/France. Useful especially for first hand interviews, but also:
  • Lessons of the Vietnam War -- A Curriculum from the Center for Social Studies Education. US curriculum guide and materials for High School teachers (and students).





2. Protest & Opposition
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  • "By Reason of Religious Training and Belief..." A History of Conscientious Objection and Religion during the Vietnam War By Karl D. Nelson. Very thorough account of an often ignored area written as an Honors Senior Project at Western Washington University. §
  • The Draft Lottery by Date of Birth: Would You Been Drafted in 1969?  Interesting article to read today.... §
  • May 4, 1970  A basic overview of the events that led to the killing of four students by the National Guard at Kent State University. 
  • Country Joe McDonald  Country Joe McDonald was a leading figure in the Anti-Vietnam War movement. This tells his story.
  • The Vietnam Generation Part of the 60´s project. Gives a 'vox pops' insight into the  'Anti-Vietnam War' protest movement and much more about views to the war in general.
  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War  The Vietnam Veterans Against the War website contains articles from past editions of The Veteran newspaper and includes a 'History of the Vietnam War' with a large collection of photographs. See also this Statement by John Kerry to the Senate Committee of Foreign Relations  April 23, 1971
  • Radical Times: The Antiwar Movement of the 1960s A fantastic and thorough resource about the anti-war movement. Includes Woodstock, counterculture, violence & unrest, and more.
  • The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement in the U.S. This essay was written in 1990-1, at the time of the Gulf War, by a veteran of the Anti-Vietnam War movement of the 1960, of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the main campus-based anti-war organization, of the Worker-Student Alliance Caucus of SDS, which stood for urging students to ally with the American working class to oppose capitalist and imperialist exploitation both at home and abroad -- exploitation which they saw as the root cause of the war in Vietnam.
  • Homefront USA PBS Transcripts from the US TV series Vietnam: A Television History. Useful especially for first hand interviews


3. US Withdrawal 

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Vietnamization Peace  Fall of Saigon and the South The Missing, and Dead... Some analysis
  • Lessons of Vietnam A fascinating interview with the author of Dereliction of Duty, Army Major H.R. McMaster, who blames the politicians and the president for the war. 
  • The Lessons of the Vietnam War An interview with Noam Chomsky, reprinted from Indochina Newsletter, November - December, 1982.
  • How Could Vietnam Happen - An Autopsy This 1968 article from the Atlantic Monthly examines the politics of the war and how America's leaders were simply ineffective. You will need to register now to access this.
  • Gen. William C. Westmoreland Was Right History net by Dale Andrad , senior historian at the U.S. Army Center of Military History, adapted from a 2008 article in the June 2008 Small Wars and Insurgencies.
  • As I Saw It And Now See It An Analysis Of America's Unique Experience In V'nam By General W. C. Westmoreland, USA, February, 1989. Not an impartial account...... Posted by the American War Library
  • The War Makers  Interesting article arguing that the Vietnam was actually the bastard child of five presidents:  Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Ford. He looks at how they and their advisers shared responsibility for the policy of war in Vietnam By John Dellinger.  § (be patient - slow to load!)
  • Conversations with History - Vietnam Audio interviews with 16 influential decision-makers and thinkers from University of California, Berkeley research gallery. The interviews  highlight the complex environment in which decisions were made that resulted in American involvement in Vietnam.
and if you are looking for more, try here:
  • The Vietnam Conflict An academic information portal for research on the Vietnam War. Includes articles that assess the impact of the Vietnam War and compare it to other conflicts.


4. Contagion & the Neighbours: Laos & Cambodia ...

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  • President Nixon's Speech to the American Public, April 30, 1970 Nixon's justification of the offensive in Cambodia.
  • Losing Ground to the Khmer Rouge As the war in Vietnam wound down with the signing of the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, the war in neighbouring Cambodia was going from bad to worse. By Wilfred P. Deac from Vietnam magazine
  • Last Days of Cambodia As America's involvement in Indochina came to an end in the spring of 1975, the Khmer Rouge closed in on Phnom Penh for the kill. By Wil Deac. Article originally from HistoryNet
  • Facing Death: Portraits from Cambodia's Killing Fields (Be patient to let the images load - this is a cached version as the site is no longer available otherwise §) The Khmer Rouge regime held power in Cambodia for three years, eight months, and twenty days between 1975 and 1979. During that time, as many as 200,000 individuals were designated enemies of the state. Over 14,000 men, women, and children were taken to Tuol Sleng, Prison S-21, where all but seven were executed or died from the effects of torture and maltreatment. This site catalogues the victims. From UCR California Museum.
  • The Friends of Pol Pot by John Pilger in The Nation magazine, May 11, 1998 looks at the western support for Pol Pot
  • The Legacy of Pol Pot A Time photo essay
  • Cambodian Genocide Program The Cambodian genocide of 1975-1979, in which approximately 1.7 million people lost their lives (21% of the country's population), was one of the worst human tragedies of the last century. Yale University's Cambodian Genocide Program provides a massive collection of primary source documents, all of which is searchable.



5. Photojournalism, Literature, Film, & Television 

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  • Two sites with valuable images but unfortunately uncredited. (The best site until recently, "Under Fire: Images from Vietnam" by Pieceunique is no longer available)
  • Vietnam Interactive  A site for the photographs of E. Kenneth Hoffman. Hoffman took photographs for the US government. However, he also took over 1500 pictures of Vietnamese civilians. Eighty of Hoffman's Vietnam photographs can be found under the following categories: 'Military', 'Children', 'Vietnamese People', 'Protest' and 'Shrines'. 
  • Another Vietnam: Pictures of the War from the other side. An excellent exhibition of photographs of the Vietnam War, as seen through the lens of North Vietnamese photographers, several of which are included on this site page.
  • Vietnam's Most Harrowing Photo An article about the famous photograph of Phan Thi Kin Phuc after a napalm attack.
  • Photo That Haunted the World BBC article on Kim Phuc, subject of the famous photograph.
  • Propaganda posters of the war from Vietnam, USSR, China. From the Dutch International Institute of Social History
  • "The Vietnam Experience": an Online Art Exhibition Navy combat artists recorded many of the navy wartime activities, typically sharing the same dangers as the sailors and Marines they accompanied. This is a comprehensive and interesting look at their work.
Cinema Television




6. General sites on the period 

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  • Spartacus Vietnam War site: an excellent educational site with witness accounts, lists to other sites (many mentioned here) and timelines. Clearly laid out
  • The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975 Includes sections on 'The Geneva Peace Accord', 'South Vietnam Under Ngo Dinh Diem', 'The National Liberation Front', 'December 1961', 'Military Coup', 'Gulf of Tonkin Resolution', 'The War in America', 'The Nixon Years' and 'The Paris Peace Agreement'. The website also has a document section ranging from NLF secret papers to Richard Nixon's speech to the USA public on 30th April, 1970 justifying the offensive in Cambodia. 
  • About The War  Vietnam Veterans of America's Electronic Library: A very extensive set of links and resources to the Vietnam War and Vietnam Era Resources. The French period is included as background to the US conflict. This is a cached version (The original site is no longer available), not all links are live and there are no descriptors, but the scope of coverage is so monumental to mean it is still worth a look! §
  • Vietnam: Yesterday and Today  Now held only on archive, this is a very full range of materials that provides insights into the Vietnam War under the categories: 'Vietnam War: Fiction', 'Vietnam War: Non-Fiction', 'Vietnam War: Fiction', 'Vietnam War: Films', 'Vietnam War: The Women's Experience' and 'The Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Perspective'. There is also a guide to teaching the topic, a chronology of the Vietnam War and links to E-Journals and Discussion Lists on the Vietnam War.   §


See this casahistoria site for further links to the Vietnam War:
  Vietnam War, Part One: US Involvement and campaigns


other casahistoria post 1945 conflict core sites:
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  Indochina: the French experience in Indochina
  Vietnam War, Part One: US Involvement and campaigns

  Vietnam War, Part Two: opposition, contagion & US withdrawal
in Africa, British southeast Asia & India, Dutch East Indies    
  The Malvinas/Falklands War
1982 UK-Argentina conflict in the South Atlantic  

Arab-Israeli Conflict 1947-79
  The British in Mesopotamia/Iraq
for links to 20th century events before independence
Iraq, Hussein, the West & War for links to the history of Iraq up to and including the Gulf Wars



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